Geography & Natural Environment

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Indonesia is located in Southeast Asia, straddling the equator between Asia and Australia, and between the Pacific and Indian Oceans as well. It is the largest archipelagic country in the world, comprising 13.466 islands. More than eighty percent of its area is seas and oceans, and of its land area of 1.9 sq km, nearly 5% consist of lakes and rivers.

Indonesia lies between latitudes 110S and 60N, and longitudes 950E and 1410E. In terms of land area, it is the 16th largest country in the world. Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on the island of Borneo, Papua New Guinea on the island of Papua, and East Timor on the island of Timor. Indonesia shares maritime borders across narrow straits with Singapore and Malaysia, and across seas with the Philippines to the north and Australia to the south, as well as with India (i.e. Andaman & Nicobar Islands territory) to the northwest.

Among its 13.466 islands, the five largest in terms of area are Papua (New Guinea, shared with Papua New Guinea), Kalimantan (Borneo, shared with Malaysia and Brunei), Sumatra, Sulawesi and Java, respectively the 2nd, the 3rd, the 5th, the 11th and the 13th largest islands in the world. Inside Indonesia’s territory, Banda Sea, Java Sea and Flores Sea are among 50 largest seas in the world.

 

 

Indonesia is located on the edges of Pacific, Eurasian and Australian tectonic plates, which makes it the site of more than 130 active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Lying along the equator, Indonesia has a tropical climate with two distinct monsoonal wet and dry seasons. Humidity is generally high, averaging about 80%, and temperatures vary little throughout the year.

 

Indonesia’s size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography, support the world’s second highest level of biodiversity (after Brazil), and its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species. Indonesia is second only to Australia in terms of total endemic species, with 36% of its 1,531 species of bird and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic. Indonesia is one of Coral Triangle countries with the world’s greatest diversity of coral reef fish with more than 1,650 species in eastern Indonesia only.

 

– See more at: http://www.indonesia-dhaka.org/geography-natural-environment/#sthash.E8mkIqFq.dpuf

 

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