Government & Foreign Policy

Government Policy

Since 1998, Indonesia has renewed and strengthened its commitment to democracy. Direct and free elections for national legislative bodies continue to be held regularly every five years with new stringent provisions added to ensure fairness, and since 2004 the president and vice president of the republic are elected directly by popular vote as well. In keeping with presidential system, the President of the Republic is the Head of State and Head of Government; he or she conduct and hold responsibility over the running of the country’s government, policy making and foreign relations, as well as being the commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces.

In conducting those responsibilities, the President of the Republic of Indonesia is assisted by the cabinet, currently consists of 34 ministers and cabinet level officials (4 Coordinators Minister and 30 minister).

Indonesia is a unitary state, thus central government is supreme and regions (i.e. provinces) exercise only powers delegated by the central government. However, among Indonesia’s 34 provinces, special status and enlarged autonomy are given to five, namely Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Special Capital Region of Jakarta, Special Region of Yogyakarta, West Papua Province and Papua Province. Provinces and special regions are further divided into regencies and cities. All provincial and special regions’ governors are popularly elected, as well as regents (head of regencies) and mayors (head of cities).

Despite being the country with the largest Muslim population in the world, Indonesia is not an Islamic country and has no state religion. Indonesian citizens, however, are legally required to adhere to a certain religion, and the state officially acknowledged six religions as well as “monotheistic belief” in which various such beliefs are grouped together (Islam, Catholic, Christian, Hindu, Buda, Kong Hue Chu).

Legislative power at the national level is held by two councils: Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (People’s Representative Council) of 560 members and Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (Regional Representative Council), with 132 members; all are popularly elected for five years term. In combined sitting, those two councils make up the Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (People’s Consultative Assembly). Provinces/special regions, regencies and cities have their respective popularly-elected legislative bodies as well. Organs of the People’s Representative Council include:

    • Inter-Parliamentary Cooperation Committee
    • Legislation Committee
    • Budget Committee

Committees on Specific Area of Issues:

o Committee I Defence, Foreign Affairs, Communication & Informatics
o Committee II Home Affairs and Regional Autonomy, State Apparatus & Bureaucratic Reform, General Election, Land & Agrarian Reform
o Committee III Law, Human Rights, Security
o Committee IV Agriculture, Plantations, Forestry, Maritime Affairs, Fishery, Food Affairs
o Committee V Transportation, Public Works, Public Housing, Rural & Disadvantaged Regions’ Development, and Meteorology, Climatology & Geophysics
o Committee VI Trade, Industry, Investment, Cooperatives, Small & Medium Enterprises, State-owned Enterprises, National Standardization
o Committee VII Energy, Mineral Resources, Research & Technology, Environment
o Committee VIII Religious Affairs, Social Services, Women Empowerment
o Committee IX Manpower & Transmigration, Population, Health
o Committee X Education, Culture, Tourism, Youth, Sports, Libraries
o Committee XI Finance, National Development Planning, Banking & other Financial Institutions

Indonesia’s foreign policy since its independence adheres to the principle of “free and active” foreign policy. This principle calls for a foreign policy that is independent from outside interference and vigorously advocating tenets embodied within Indonesia’s constitution, which is fulfilled through bilateral, regional and multilateral cooperation, as well as active participation in various regional and international organizations. Indonesia currently is a member of more than 60 international and regional organizations and fora, including the United Nations, Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), East Asia Summit (EAS), the G-20, the D-8 and the G-77.

– See more at: http://www.indonesia-dhaka.org/government/#sthash.IpMYmPAk.dpuf

Foreign Policy

The Strategic Plan has been drafted and guided by the National Long Term Development Plan (RPJPN) for 2005-2025 and the National Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN) for 2010-2014 as its foundation. In addition to specifying the achievements in the implementation of tasks and authorities in the preceding period, the Strategic Plan of the Ministry, as a medium-term planning document, also sets forth the vision, missions, purposes, strategies, policies, programs, and activities as well as the performance targets and funding which are to be implemented by all working units in the Ministry for the subsequent five-year period.

It provides guidelines for the implementation of tasks and functions and a tool to measure the efforts carried out to improve the performance of the Ministry in line with Indonesian principles of diplomacy. The past constraints and problems which have been managed in the preceding period should become a benchmark in determining the purposes and goals of foreign relations for five years ahead.

Within the international-domestic context, Indonesian diplomacy has demonstrated strengthened performance in the bilateral, regional and multilateral relations. Efforts in multilateral and regional diplomacy that Indonesia makes should be intensified by solid bilateral diplomacy. Indonesian foreign policy will actively seek to improve relations with countries in Asia Pacific, Africa, America, and Europe and bring it to a higher level to achieve the country’s interest. International acknowledgment of Indonesia is a significant element in the implementation of the country’s foreign policy in the future.

The foreign policy should reflect democratic transformation which has taken place at home. Hereafter, it is necessary to place an emphasis on the importance of support and participation from all stakeholders for the effective Indonesian foreign policy in strengthening its position at the international level.

The Strategic Plan has been drafted and guided by the National Long Term Development Plan (RPJPN) for 2005-2025 and the National Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN) for 2010-2014 as its foundation. In addition to specifying the achievements in the implementation of tasks and authorities in the preceding period, the Strategic Plan of the Ministry, as a medium-term planning document, also sets forth the vision, missions, purposes, strategies, policies, programs, and activities as well as the performance targets and funding which are to be implemented by all working units in the Ministry for the subsequent five-year period.

 

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